All understanding comes from the writings of the prophets (Old Testament or Tanach: they are one and the same) in light of the Mashiach’s death for our sin, His burial and His resurrection the third day. The Law and the Prophets prophesy or foretell the Christ’s death for our sins, His burial and His resurrection the third day. Yeshua of Nazareth is the Mashiach.
Abram, before his name was changed to Abraham, is the first to be called a “Hebrew”. (Gen 14:13) The Hebrew word in Gen 14:13, “Abriy” (pronounced “ae-bre”) literally means “of Aber” . Abriy or “Hebrew” is a descendant of Aber. It is through Aber the promise of “the seed” would come. Aber is a descendant of Noah through Shem. And Noah is a descendent of Adam through Seth. Avraham is a descendant of Aber though his son, Peleg. Abram called a Hebrew, is pointing out his descendancy to the promise. Aber means “cross over”, for the earth was divided in the days of Peleg, and despite the division, the promise of the Seed would continue through Aber and his son, Peleg. The promise continued to Avraham, and then Isaac and then Yacob. Yoseph, son of Yacob, is called a Hebrew. Moshah in the writing of the Torah identified fellow descendants of Yacob as Hebrews. Yonah the prophet was a Hebrew. Paul writes that he was of the tribe of Benyamiyn, but more so, a Hebrew. A Hebrew is of the nation of Yisrael, through the descendancy of Avraham, Isaac, Yacob and the twelve tribes or families. Hebrews or those of Yisrael are heirs to the promise of the land, which is the promise to the nation, called by God’s name. There must be a nation called Yisrael of the descendents of Avraham, Isaac, Yacob and the twelve tribes, for God to save out of them, the children of promise, equally and without partiality as all nations. They, Yisrael, a nation that the Seed must bless (the Seed is the Mashiach) equally and without partiality, as the other nations are of the Gentiles. “In thy Seed all the nations of the earth shall be blessed.” The Seed is one, and the Seed is the Mashiach, and the interpretation sure and true.
In the New Testament (the writings of the apostolos) “Hebrew” is often used of the spoken language of the Israel. It is also used to identify the descendants of the twelve tribes of Yisrael, as the “Letter to the Hebrews” reveals.
But not all the twelve tribes of Israel, are of Yisrael (Yacob), for Yowceph (Joseph) has a double portion. Yowceph had two sons Ephraim and Manassah, and they were each given a portion of the land. This is so there would be understanding that “not all of Yisrael, were of Yisrael.” Yudah was whom the promised Seed would come. The tribe of Dan is of the promise of the land. But this Dan is identified with Yavan (Greece) in Ezekiel, “Dan also and Yavan going to and fro, occupied in thy fairs (the fairs of Tyre): bright iron, cassia, and calamus were in thy market.” In Revelation chapter 7 “the tribe of Dan” is omitted as is Ephraim. Yowceph is added as well as Manassah: Ephraim is included with Yowceph, though not a distinct tribe. Also notice Levi is included (the priesthood had no inheritance in the land). This is because the Levitical priesthood has been fulfilled in the Mashiach and Levi is given a equal lot of the land. There are the saved, and the nations of the saved. There are the saved of Yisrael, and the saved of the twelve tribes equally without partiality. There are the saved of Yisrael, and the nation of the saved of Yisrael. This is the same for all nations. Dan forsook his birthright (according to the purpose of God. He was chosen to be this vessel before he had done any evil or good.) and was a betrayer through idols, but is not excluded from the mercy of God (none are excluded from the mercy of God, although many are called, few are chosen for grace), for it is identified with Yavan (Greece) in Ezekiel. A nation might cease to exist, but this does not mean God forsakes the inhabitants. For they will be found in other nations, just not the one that ceases to exist, and there will be the nations of the saved of all the nations determined by God. A nation identified as Hebrew is to bring to light the descendancy of Abraham from Aber through Isaac and Yacob and the twelve tribes. But Dan was a descendant of Yacob, but ultimately not of Yisrael, but of Yavan. Hebrew is the descendancy of the nation called by the name Yisrael who God brought out of Mitsrayim (Egypt) with a strong arm. Yisrael is also the descendants of those whom God will save to fulfill the promise (the gospel preached to Avraham), “in thy seed all the nations of the earth shall be blessed”, and “all Yisrael shall be saved”. God will save those He has determined without partiality of the nation of Yisrael and the twelve tribes, as He will save those whom He has determined from all nations equally without partiality. The nations of the Gentiles have not tribes. And then Yisrael will be the saved, and then there will be the saved, made up of Yisrael and the nations (Gentiles), and the nations of the saved without partiality when the time comes as it is written, “death has no sting”. And as Elohiym, “God of all gods”, saves Yisrael without partiality, so to, will He save the chosen ones from each of the twelve tribes of Yisrael equally without partiality.
Reguarding Yisrael, God changed Yacob’s name to Yisrael as it is written, “And God said unto him, Thy name is Yacob. Thy name shall not be called any more Yacob, but Yisrael shall be called thy name. And He called his name Yisrael.” (Gen 35) The nation called Yisrael speaks of those who are the descendants of Yacob whom God has chosen. It speaks of twelves tribes, but not all of Yisrael (Yacob), are of Yisrael. To be a Hebrew includes Avraham, the lineage of Abar of the promise. This is all of Yisrael whom God will save without partiality. This speaks of the saved of Yisrael and the nation of the saved. Yisrael today speaks of the nation with the twelve tribes which God will save as it is written, “All Yisrael shall be saved”. They shall be saved without partiality in the Mashiach – the nation, Yisrael, and the twelve tribes. For now the time of the Gentiles is fulfilled. There has been a partial hardening of Yisrael up to now. This partial hardening or unbelief has had a great purpose: to bring faith to the nations: to include the nations as God sees fit without partiality in the Mashiach. The number of Gentiles to be saved has been complete, and now we await for completion of the salvation of our God: to fill up the number of Yisrael who are to be saved: to fill up the Mashiach, Yeshua, the Son of God. Those in the Mashiach, of Yisrael and the Gentiles (nations or “gowy” in the Hebrew) whom God has chosen according to His will and grace to be saved: saved from sin, from death, and judgment. This is done equally without partiality by the God and Father of our Lord Yeshua ha Mashiach.