Word Study: Hate

The Greek word translated hate in the NT is μισεω (Strongs 3404, miseo). It is a verb (word of action) and found 42 total times in the NT: hate (41); hateful (1). The noun form of miseo, misos, is not found in the NT. It is worthy of observation that the 42 times the Greek word translated “hate” in the NT is only found in its verb form – it is a word of action.  The translation of miseo can have little doubt that it means hate. Miseo is found 146 total times in the LXX, along with misos, 11 times.

In the LXX the Greek word miseo is primarily the translation of the Hebrew word, שנא, (Strongs 8130, sana(long a at the end). It is found 146 total times in the OT: hate (136); enemy(s) (5); foes (1); hateful (1); miscellaneous (3). “Sana” is found in a puddle of Hebrew words: shen (8127) translated “cliff”; shen (8128) tooth; shana (8132) change; shena (8142) sleep and shanah (8141) year. Through this puddle there is an overriding sense of “change”. Sleep is change from awake. Year is a change of year. Hate is a change from love. I think the inclusion of the Hebrew word for tooth as it is relates to hate or change comes from the expression that is so identified with hate, gnashing of teeth (Mat 8:12; 13:42, 50: 22:13; 24:51; 25:30; Mark 9:18; Luke 13:28. This is a change of continence or appearance. Cliff in this puddle of meaning could be its identification with its appearance as teeth, or the change from higher to lower.

In spiritual thought “hate” is more of an expression of change than it is of emotion in a negative sense. The first time the Hebrew word, sana, is found in the OT is Gen 24:60 despite Gen 4:5 when Cain was very wroth and his countenance fell. Cain’s appearance changed from one of brotherly love to murder. Touching up the first few verses in the OT where  the Hebrew word, sana, is found in Gen 25:60 Rebekah’s blessing is “let thy seed possess the gate of those which are change toward thee (hate thee); Gen 26:27, Yisqak asks Abimelech and those with him, “Wherefore come you to me, see you are change toward me, and have sent me away from you”; in Gen 29:31 & 33, “And Yahavah saw that Leah was hate (appearance of other was changed toward her)…and afterwards Leah said, “Because Yahavah has heard that I was HATED, he has therefore given me this son also and she called his name Simeon (Shimown).” (Could it be that Shimown perhaps is Shanown and means “the hated one” versus the commonly accepted meaning of “heard  one”. For this meaning fits well with the prophecy of Gen 49:5ff, “Simeon and Levi are brethren, instruments of cruelty are in their habitation. O my soul, come not thou into their secret, unto their assembly, mine honor be not thou united; for in their anger they slew a man, and in their selfwill they digged down a wall. Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce, and their wrath, for it was cruel. I will divide them in Yacob, and scatter them in Yisrael.” Was it not in the purpose of God in the Mashiach that “he was HATED without a cause” – “their continence was changed without a cause to fulfill the purpose of God, for had they known the Lord of glory they would not have crucified Him. Father, forgive them for they know not what they know.

I mark this writing by the one true gospel, and the one true gospel is the Mashiach, Yeshua of Nazareth, died for our sins according to the OT, He was buried and He rose again the third day according to the OT. (Luke 24, 1 Cor 15:1-6). The testimony of two confirm the fact, and the fact is the one true gospel.

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