The English word “world” occurs in 240 total times in the NT. Five Greek words are translated “world” in the NT.
The most common Greek word translated “world” is “kosmos” (Strongs 2889, 1st time it is found in the NT, Mat 4:8). “Kosmos” is found 187 times in the NT and translated “world” every verse except 1 Pet 3:3 were it is translated “adorning”.
The next and most frequent Greek word that is translated “world” is “aion” (Strongs 165, 1st time Mat 12:32) which the English language derives the word “eon”. The literal translation of “aion” is “age”, as in a particular span of time, thus, an age. It is found 128 total times in the NT: ever (71); world (38); never (6); evermore (4); age (2); eternal (2); misc (5). “Aion” comes from the Greek word, the adverb “aei” which is found 8 total times in the NT: always (4); always (3); ever (1). These 8 verses are found in Mat 15:8; Act 7:51; 2 Cor 4:11, 6:10; Tit 1:12; Heb 3:10; 1 Pet 3:15; 2 Pet 1:12. With “aion” having its root in the Greek word for “always”, its meaning would most closely be a “duration of time”. Read the 128 verses “aion” is found in the NT and replace it will “duration of time”. The passage with then read more closely to the original sense of the language. “Aion” would then not be translated “world” at all.
The next word is the Greek word “oikoumene” (Strong 3625, 1st Mat 24:14). It is found 15 total times in the NT: world (14 ); earth (1). “Oikoumene” is derived from the Greek word “oikeo” (Strongs 3611, Rom 7:17) which means “to dwell” and “oikos” (Strongs 3624, Mat 9:6) which means house or dwelling place”. It is found a total of 114 times in the NT, 104 times translated “house”. “Oikoumene” in this puddle meaning would be the earth, more specifically the places where people dwell. Try this experiment and replace all the places in the OT “oikoumene” and replace it with “dwelling places” or the inhabitable earth versus the inhabitable; where people are found in the earth versus where they are not found.
The final two Greek words which are translated “world” once each are chronos (Strongs 5550, 2 Tim 1:9) and “ge” (gay, Strongs 1093, Rev 13:3). “Chronos” is found 53 total times in the NT, time (33), season (4), misc. (11). In 2 Tim 1:9 “chronos” should be translated “time’”. “Ge” is found 252 total times in the NT translated earth (188), land (42), ground (18), misc (4). “Ge” should be translated “land” in all instances it is found as the closest word to the original Greek meaning. (It is interesting the Hebrew word for nation is “GoY/GoWiY, H1471. It is similar in pronunciation to the Greek word “ge”.)
“Kosmos” is the dominate word translated “world”. It is found 28 times in the LXX. (Gen 2:1; Deut 4:19; 17:3; 2 Sam 1:24; Prov 17:6; 20:29; 28:17; 29:17; Eccl 12:9 (set in order many proverbs); Is 3:18, 19, 20, 24, 26; 13:10 (stars of heaven, hosts); 24:21; 40:26 (hosts by number); 49:18 (as her arranging); 61:10 (deck himself with ornaments); Jer 2:32 (can a maid forget her ornaments); 4:30; Ez 7:20 (beauty of his ornament); 16:11 (deck thee with ornaments),13 (decked with silver and gold); 23:40 (deck with ornaments); Nah 2:9 (LXX no end to their adorning). The verses crossed out above as far as I can see in the version of the LXX I study, do not have the Greek word “kosmos” in them. Thus, “kosmos” is only found 14 times in the LXX OT.
Now let us look at the Hebrew words that are found in the verses with “kosmos”. In four verses (Gen 2:1; Deut 4:19, 17:3; Is 40:26) “kosmos” is found, the Hebrew word “kosmos” is translated from is TZaBA (Strongs 6635). It literally means “to assembly with an order”. The word TZaBA implies assembling with an order, versus chaos, an ordered assembly. Gen 2:1 reads, “Thus the heavens and earth were finished and all the TZaBA of them.” Deut 4:19 reads, “And lest thou lift up the eyes to heaven, and when you see the sun and moon and stars, all the TZaBA of heaven, should be driven to worship, which Yahavah Elohiym has divided to all nations under the whole heavens.” Deut 17:3 reads, “and has gone and served other elohiyms, and worshipped them, either the sun or moon, or any of the TZaBA of heaven, which I have not commanded.” Is 40:21-26 reads, “Have you not known? Has it not been told you from the beginning? Have you not understood from the foundations of the earth? It is He that sitteth on the circle of the earth, and the inhabitants thereof are as grasshoppers; that stretches out the heavens as a curtain, and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in; that brings the princes to nothing; he makes the judges of the earth as vanity. Yes, they shall not be planted. Yes, they shall not be sown. Yes, there stock shall not take root in the earth. And he shall also blow upon them, and they shall wither, and the whirlwind shall take them away as stubble. To whom then will you liken me, or who shall be my equal, sayeth the Holy One. Lift up your eyes on high, and behold who created these things, that bring out their TZaBA by number. He calls them all by names by the greatness of his might, for He is strong in power, not one fails.” Thus, TZaBA literally means an “ordered assembly”, in these verses speaking of the stars.
In six verses “kosmos” translates four Hebrew words closely related: ADeN (Strongs 5730) meaning “delight” (the garden of ADeN); ADaH (Strongs 5710) meaning “bring upon”; ADiY (Strongs 5716) meaning “brings upon”. ADiY is found 14 times in the OT translated ornament (11), miscellaneous (3). Ornament is the translation in the thought that ornaments are “brought upon” a person or thing. 2 Sam 1:24 reads, “who clothed you in scarlet with other ADeN (delights), who put on ornaments of gold upon your apparel.” ADeN is translated delight seemingly as delights are “brought upon”. But the garden of ADeN was brought upon Adam and Eve by God. In these verses the Hebrew word has a sense of bringing upon, as ornaments for delight.
In Eccl 12:9 kosmos translates “TaQaN (set in order) many proverbs”. TaQaN literally means to makes straight, so Eccl 12:9 would read “make straight many parables.” As it relates to kosmos, TaQaN spiritual means to make straight which makes straight.
Isaiah 13:10 reads, “for the stars of heaven and the KeCiYL (constellations) thereof shall not give their light.” KeCiYL from all sources seems to be the constellation Orion. KeCiYL (Strongs 3685) is derived from Strongs 3684 (meaning a “fool) of the same spelling which is derived from Strongs 3688, KaCaL is “to be foolish” (found 1 time in the OT, Jer 10:8). All said this constellation in the Hebrew spiritually means “the foolish one”, unlike the Greek, Orion, meaning the great hunter. Almost all civilizations seem to have had a tendency to see a man exalted in this constellation, whether the Babylonians who saw Nimrod, or the Greeka who saw the demi-god, Orion, or other civilizations who saw some type of exalted hunter-man. It is this constellation that has the tendency to exalt a man, that God declares to be the “foolish one”. KeCiYL is found 4 times total in the OT: Job 9:9, 38:31; Is 13:10; Amos 5:8. Two other constellations are found in the OT. The first one Pleiades (Strongs 3598, KiYMaH: 3 total times: Job 9:9, 38:31; Amos 5:8). The second one is Arcturus, the Big Dipper (Strongs 3906, AYiSH: 3 total times: Job 9:9, 38:31; Amos 5:8). KeCiYL or the constellation or the order of the stars is thus, translated kosmos.
In Isaiah 49:18 “kosmos” in the translation has no connection to the Hebrew text.
Finally, in Nahum 2:9 literally reads in the Hebrew, “Take you the spoil of silver, take the spoil of gold, for there is no end of the TeKuWNaH (storehouse). TeKuWNaH (Strongs 8498) is found 2 times total in the OT: Ezekiel 43:11, Nah 2:9. It is derived from the TaKan (Strongs 8504) meaning “to measure”. Thus a more consistent translation of Nah 2:9 would be, “no end of the measure.” Kosmos would then translate the ordered and planned storehouse
Thus, kosmos is used to translate several Hebrew words which all have a sense of order whether the stars or adornment or making right. The order and placement of the stars are of God, the creator.
Thus, the spiritual word kosmos in the OT comes to mean the physical world around about us and its order by God. It has both a negative and positive sense dependent on how it is used. “Love not the world neither the things in the world. Any person that love the world the love of the Father is not in him”…“For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, tht whomsoever believeth in Him should not perish but have everlasting life. For God sent not His Son into the world to condemn the word, but that the world through Him might be saved.”…“If any man hear my words and believe not, I judge him not. For I came not to judge the world, but to save the world.” God ordered the creation and the world roundabout us so that the MaSHiYaKH, Yeshua would suffer and die, be buried and raised the third day according to the OT.