Word Study: Good Pleasure

The phrase, “good pleasure” is found 5 times in the NT in the following verses:

  • Luke 12:32: “Fear not, little flock, for it is your Father’s GOOD PLEASURE to give you the kingdom.”
  • Eph 1:5: “Having predestinated us unto the adoption of children by Yeshua ha Mashiach to Himself, according to the GOOD PLEASURE of His will,”
  • Eph 1:9: “Having made known unto us the secret of His will, according to His GOOD PLEASURE which He purposed in Himself”
  • Phil 2:13: “For it is God which worketh in you both to will and to do of His GOOD PLEASURE.”
  • 2 Thes 1:11: Wherefore also we pray always for you, that our God would count you worthy of the calling, and fulfill all the GOOD PLEASURE of goodness, and the work of faith with power.”

The phrase “good pleasure” is found one time in the OT in Psalms 51:18: “Do good in thy GOOD PLEASURE unto Tzion: build thou the walls of Yerushalem.”

For this word study let us start in the NT and the Greek. In Luke 12:32 the Greek word translated “good pleasure” is Strongs# G2106, eudokeo. It is found 21 total times in the NT and translated “be well pleased” 7 times, “please” 5, “have pleasure” 4, “be willing” 2, “be one’s good pleasure” 1, “take pleasure” 1, “think” 1.

Eudokeo is a verb, a word of action. It is derived from two Greek words, “eu” meaning “good” and “dokeo” meaning “to think”, thus literally “eudokeo” means “to think good”. It is found in the following versus in the NT:

  • Mat 3:17; 12:18; 17:5; Mark 1:11; Luke 3:22; 2 Pet 1:17 (these six verses speak of the Father thinking good of the Son);
  • Luke 12:32 (your Father’s good thinking to give you the kingdom);
  • Rom 15:26 (it pleased them to give), 27;
  • 1 Cor 1:21 (God thinking good of the foolishness of preaching);
  • 1 Cor 10:5 (God not thinking good);
  • 2 Cor 5:8 (think good to go away from the home of our body);
  • 2 Cor 12:10 (think good of infirmities);
  • Col 1:19 (God thinking good);
  • 1 Thes 2:8 (we think good);
  • 2 Thes 2:12 (think good of unrighteousness);
  • Heb 10:6, 8 (think not good of burnt offerings for sin);
  • Heb 10:38 (my soul thinks not good).

The noun form of eudokeo is eudokia (Strongs# 2107). It literally means “good thoughts and is found 9 times in the NT: good pleasure 4; good will 2, seems good 2, desire 1. It is found in the following verses: Mat 11:26; Luke 2:14; 20:21; Rom 10:1; Eph 1:5, 9; Phil1:15; 2:13; 2 Thes 1:11.

Eudokeo (Strongs# 2106) is found approximately 37 times in the LXX:

  • Gen 24:26 “well pleased”,
  • Gen 24:48 “well pleased”;
  • Gen 33:10 “well pleased”;
  • Lev 26:34 “enjoy”, 35 “enjoy”, 41 “acquiesce”;
  • Judges 11:17 “consent”;
  • Judges 15:18 “granted”;
  • Judges 19:10 “thought not good”, 25 “consent”;
  • Judges 20:13 “consent”;
  • 2 Kings 22:20 “delighted” (KJV 2 Sam 22:20);
  • 1 Chron 29:3 “took pleasure”, 23 “highly honored”;
  • 2 Chron 10:7 “be kind to them”;
  • Job 14:6 “take pleasure”;
  • Ps 39:13 “be pleased” (KJV 30:13); 43:3 “well pleased” (KJV 44:3); 50:18 “in thy good pleasure” (KJV 51:18); 67:16 “delight” (KJV 68:16); 76:7 “well pleased” (KJV 77:7); 84:1 “take pleasure” (KJV 85:1); 101:14 “take pleasure” (KJV 102:14); 118:108 “accept” (KJV 119:108); 146:10 “well pleased”, 11 “pleasure” (KJV 147:10, 11); 149:4 “takes pleasure” (KJV 149:4);
  • Eccl 9:7 “accepted” ;
  • Is 54:17 “prosper”; 62:4 “pleasure”;
  • Jer 2:19 “no pleasure”, 36 “prosper”; 14:10 “prosper”, 12 “take no pleasure”;
  • Hab 2:4 “no pleasure”;
  • Hag 1:8 “pleasure”;
  • Mal 2:17 “pleasure”.

NOTE: The words in italics are taken from the translation of the LXX.

Eudokia (Strongs# 2107) is found 8 times in the LXX:

  • 1 Chron 16:10 “pleasure”;
  • Ps 5:12 “favor” (KJV 5:12); 18:14 “pleasing” (KJV 19:14); 50:19 “pleased” (KJV 51:19); 68:13 “in my prayer” (KJV 69:13); 88:17 “good pleasure” (KJV 89:17); 105:4 “favor” (KJV 106:4); 140:5 “pleasures” (KJV 141:5).

The one time the phrase “good pleasure” is found in the OT is Ps 51:18, “DO GOOD (YaTaB, Strongs# H3190) in thy GOOD PLEASURE (RaTZoWN, Strongs# 7522) unto Tzion (TZiYoWN): build thou the walls of Yerushalem (YeRuWSHaLeM).” The Hebrew word translated GOOD PLEASURE is Strongs# 7522. It is actually not a translation of the Hebrew word, but of the Greek in the LXX , and the word, eudokeo, (Strong# 2106 ) meaning “think good”. The Hebrew word, YaTaB (3190) means “to do good” – the act of doing good. RaTZoWN (7522) means “delight”. Psalms 51:18 closely following the Hebrew text would then be translated, “DO GOOD in thy DELIGHT to TZiYoWN: build the walls of YeRuWSHaLeM.”

RaTZoWN (7522) is found 56 times in the OT: favor 15, will 14, acceptable 8, delight 5, pleasure 5, accept 5, desire 3, self will 1. RaTZoWN is the verb form of the Hebrew word it is derived from, RaTZaH (7521). RaTZoWN as a verb means “to favor”, “to accept” or “to delight”. RaTZaH (7521) is found 52 times in the OT translated accept 22 times, please 6, pleasure 6, delight 5, enjoy 4, favorable 3, acceptable 1, misc. 10.

RaTZoWN and RaTZaH are found in a puddle of words, Strongs# 7518-7533. RaTZ (7518) is found 1 time in the OT (Ps 68:30). It is translated “pieces” in the KJV but should be translated “delight” as the “delight of silver”. RaTZA (7519) is found 1 time in the OT (Ez 1:14). It is translated “ran” in the KJV, but should be translated “delight” as “the living creatures delighted”. RaTZaD (7520) is found 1 time in the OT (Ps 68:16), and is translated “leap”, but should be translated “delight” as 7519. RaTZaH (7521) & RaTZoWN (7522) have already been mentioned. RaTZaK (7523) means “to kill”. It is found 47 times in the OT (1st time Num 35:6, manslayer). ReTZaK (7524) is found two times in the OT (Ps42:10; Ez 21:22).  RaTZA (7527) is found one time (Ez 21:6). They both have similar in meaning to RaTZaK (7523), “to kill”. RaTZaF (7528) is found one time in the OT and translated “paved” (Song of Sol 3:10). RaTZaF (7529) is translated “coal” and is found one time in the OT (1 Kings 19:6). In this place it should have been translated “pavement”.  ReTZeF (7530) is a place in Assyria and found two times in the OT (2 King 19:12; Is 37:12). RiTZpaH (7531) is found 8 times in the OT, and translated “pavement” seven times (2 Chron 7:3; Est 1:6; Ez 40:17,17, 40:18, 18) and “coal” in one place (Is 6:6). RiTZPaH (7532) is a woman’s name (2 Sam 3:7; 21:8, 10, 11). RaTZaTZ (7533) is found 19 times in the OT translated oppressed 6, broken 4, break 3, bruised 2, crush 2, discourage 1, struggle 1 (1st time Gen 25:22 and translated struggled together).

Thus, in this puddle words (7518-7533) the Hebrews words translate “to delight, to kill”, or “to pave or pavement” and “to crushed or bruised”. The words in this puddle are also a place in Assyria (7530) and a woman’s name (7532). I would think that a place, a town or city” and a woman’s name would be derived from the meaning “delight”. “To kill” is a strange word to be found in the midst of a word “to delight”, but perhaps the implication of “to kill” is in the sense of having delight in killing. One who kills in the negative sense has delight in it. “To pave” or “pavement” perhaps is in this puddle of meaning as the delight of walking on that which is paved versus the hardship associated with a path or road unpaved. Thus, whether “to kill” or “to pave” the root of the meaning is “to delight”.

I mark this writing by the one true gospel. The one true gospel, the words of life, is the Mashiach Yeshua died for our sins according to the OT, He was buried and He rose again the third day according to the OT.

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Word Study: Compassion

The English word, compassion(s), is found 20 times in the NT. Seven Greek words are translated compassion, but not exclusively.

The first Greek word translated compassion is Strongs# 4697, splagknizomai. It is found 12 times in the NT, and 12 times it is translated “to have compassion” or “to be moved with compassion”: Mat 9:36; 14:14; 15:32; 18:27; 20:34; Mark 1:41; 6:34; 8:2; 9:22; Luke 7:13; 10:33; 15:20. “Splagknizomai is derived from the Greek word, Strongs# 4698, splagknon: meaning bowels or inner part. It is found 11 times in the NT translated bowels, 9 times, inward affection 1, tender mercies 1: Luke 1:78; Acts 1:18; 2 Cor 6:12; 7:15; Phil 1:8; 2:1; Col 3:12; Phil 1:7, 12, 20; 1 John 3:17. It should be translated “bowels” each and every time it is found.

The second Greek word translated compassion is Strongs# 1653, eleeo. It is found 33 total times in the NT. 14 times it is translated “have, obtain or show mercy 25; compassion 6: pity 1: Mat 5:7; 9:27; 15:22; 17:15; 18:33 (2x); 20:30, 31; Mark 5:19; 10:47, 48; 16:24; 17:13; 18:38, 39; Rom 9:15 (2x), 16, 18; 11:30 (2), 31, 32; 12:8; 1 Cor 7:25; 2 Cor 4:1; Phil 2:27; 1 Tim 1:13; 1 Pet 2:11 (3x); Jude 1:22.

The third Greek word translated compassion is Strongs# 3356, metriopatheo. It is found one time in the NT in Heb 5:2. This Greek word is not an easy word to translate and means “to be effect moderately or in measure” or “to be moderate in passion” or gentle (to treat indulgently). The word is derived from two Greek words, metrios (G3357, Acts 20:12, translated “a little” or literally “not measured”, much) and pathos (G3806, Rom 1:26; Col 3:5; 1 Thes 4:5, 3 total times in NT: affection 2, lust 1; could be lust, passion, desire), so literally “passion in measure”.

The fourth Greek word translated compassion is Strongs# 4835, sympathos, which literally means “feeling with”. It is found one time in the NT (1 Pet 3:8). It is similar to Strong 3356 (pathos is a part of the word) except instead of “metrio” the suffix, “sym” is used (“sym” means “with”). Thus, sympathos is “passion or feeling WITH” while metriopatheo is “affected in measure”. Both words are to be affected, one with and one in measure, but affected nonetheless. A similar words in the Greek is Strongs# 4834 (sympatheo, translated “compassion” in Heb 10:34 and “feeling” in Heb 4:15).

The fifth Greek word translated “compassion” is Strongs# 3627, oiktiro, meaning “to have pity on” (Rom 9:15 (2 times).

In the KJV 1 John 3:17 has the English word “compassion” is used, but it is not translated from a word. The Greek word splagknon (Strongs# 4698) is used here and it should be translated “bowels”.

The English word, compassion, is found 22 times in the KJV OT: Ex 2:6; Deut 13:17; 30:3; 1 Sam 23:21; 1 Kings 8:50 (2x); 2 Kings 13:23; 2 Chron 30:9; 36:15, 36:17; Ps 78:38; 85:15; 111:4; 112:4; 145:8; Is 49:15; Jer 12:15; Lam 3:22, 3:32; Ez 16:5; Mic 7:19; Zech 7:9. There are four Hebrew words translated compassion.

The first Hebrew word translated “compassion” is Strongs 2550 (KaMaL, found 41 total times in the OT) translated pity 18 times, spare 18, compassion 5: Ex 2:6; Deut 13:8; 1 Sam 15:3, 9, 15; 23:21: 2 Sam 12:4,6,7; 2 Sam 21:7; 2 Chron 36:15,17; Job 6:10; 16:13; 20:13; 27:22; Prov 6:34; Is 9:19; 30:14; Jer 13:14; 15:5; 21:7; 50:14; 51:3; Lam 2:2,17,21; 3:43; Ez 5:11; 7:4,9; 8:18; 9:5,10; 16:5; 36:21; Joel 2:18; Hab 1:17; Zech 11:5,6: Mal 3:17. KaMal is found in puddle of words in the Strongs, 2524 to 2579. In this puddle of words one will find words meaning hot, anger, delight, violence, mercy, pity, boil, ferment, and bubbling up. There is a sense of warmth in either a positive or negative sense such as mercy and anger or a practical sense as boiling and fermenting. Compassion could be seen as a positive emotion, bubbling up from within a person, as does, anger. There also seems to be a sense of an inner working that is not seen at the first, such as fermenting, boiling, anger and mercy.

The second thru fourth Hebrew word is a puddle of three words, Strongs# 7349 (RaKuWM, to love; 13 total times: merciful 8; compassion 5. Ex 34:6; Deut 4:31; 2 Chron 30:9; Neh 9:31; Ps 78:38; 86:15; 103:8; 111:4; 112:4: 145:8; Joel 2:13; 4:2) 7355 (RaKaM, love, 47 total: mercy 32, compassion 8, pity 3, love 1, merciful 1, misc 2: Ex 33:19 & 7356 (RaKaM, love: 13 total: merciful 8, compassion 5: Ex 34:6).


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Word Study: Beast (s) of the forest

The spiritual phrase “beast(s) of the forest” is found 4 times in the OT. In the phrase there are two Hebrew words that are translated “beast”. Ka’iY (Strongs 2416) is found 3 times (Ps 50:10; 104:20; Is 56:9). BeHeMaH (Strongs 929) is found 1 time (Micah 5:8).

For more on Ka’iY and BeHeMaH the post, Word Study: Beast(s) of the field(earth), can be read.

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Word Study: Beast(s) of the field (earth)

The spiritual phrase “beast(s) of the field(earth)” is found 41 times in the OT. In the phrase there are five Hebrew words that are translated “beast”. Ka’iY (Strongs 2416) is used 27 times as beast in “beast(s) of the field(earth)”: Gen 2:19, 20; 3:1, 14; Ex23:11, 29; Deut 7:22; 2 Sam 21:10; Job4:23; 40:20; Ps 104:11; Is 43:20; Jer 12:9; 27:6; 28:14; Eze 29:5; 31:6, 13; 32:4; 34:5, 8, 20; 39:4, 17; Hos 2:12, 18; 4:3. BeHeMaH (Strongs 929) is used 5 times (1 Sam 17:44; Ps 8:7; Is 56:9; Joel 1:20; 2:22). KaYVA (Strongs 2423) is used 6 times only in the book of Daniel (Dan 2:28; 4:12, 21, 23, 25, 32). ZiYZ (Strongs 2123) is used 2 times (Ps 50:11; Ps 80:13). TeRaFaH (Strongs 2966) is used 1 time (Ex 22:31).

TeRaFaH is found 9 total times in the OT (Gen 31:39; Ex 22:13, 31; Lev 7:24; 17:15; 22:8; Eze 4:14; 44:31; Nah 2:12). Beast is not a translation of TeRaFaH and is added by the translators in 5 verses (Gen 31:39; Ex 22:31; Lev 7:24; 17:15; 22:8). TeRaFaH literally means that which is torn in pieces or fragments. It is translated 8 times, torn, and 1 time, ravin.

ZiYZ is found 3 times in the OT. Is 66:11 translates  ZiYZ correctly as “abundance”: “That you may suck, and be satisfied with the breasts of her consolations; that you may milk out, and be delighted with the ABUNDANCE of her glory.”   Because “abundance” is the correct translation Psalms 50:11 should read, “I know the birds of the mountains, and the abundance of the field is mine.” Psalms 80:13 should read, “The boar out of the forest does waste it, and the abundance of the field is devoured.”

KaYVA is found 20 total times in the OT and once again all in Daniel (Dan 2:38; 4:12, 14, 15, 16, 21, 23, 25, 32; 5:21; 7:3, 5, 6, 7 (2X), 11, 12, 17, 19, 23). All twenty times it is translated “beast”. KaYVa is foreign derivative of the Hebrew word, Ka’iY, and means the same, “living one”.

BeHeMaH is found 189 total times in the OT. It is translated beast, 136 times and cattle, 53 times. In the ToRaH it is found 103 times (Gen 21 times; Ex 18 times, Lev 31 times, Num 15 times, Deut 18 times). The first time it is found in the OT is Gen 1:24. BeHeMaH is derived from two Hebrew words, HeMaH (Strongs 1992, meaning “they”, a plural word) and HaMaH (Strongs 1993, meaning a loud sound, disquieted, and as the sea makes noise or roars). Deriving a meaning for BeHeMaH from HeMaH and HaMaH it would be a plural word with the implication of noise, roaring or disquieted. It would be that BeHeMaH is a living one, an animal, that is disquieted and loud, such  as herding animals. With this essence of meaning it can be perceived why the translators picked “cattle” to translate the BeHeMaH 53 times out of the 189 total times. BeHeMah could then be all animals that herd together in a group, and not necessarily one kind of animal. They would be known for the noise the herd makes, how they roar when they are disquieted. In the New World the buffalo would be translated BeHeMah. Deer, antelope, water buffalo, zebra, and many other types of animals would be known as herding creatures, living ones, BeHeMaH.

Ka’iY is found 501 total times in the OT. It is translated live, 197 times, life 144, beast 76, alive 31, creature 15, running 7, living thing 6, raw 6, misc 19. The essence of the word is life. When applied to animals it is the living ones. When applied to vegetables is vegetables that have life or raw. A better translation of Ka’iY is living ones, rather than beast. The spiritual phrase would then be living ones of the field or the earth.

If we translate all the occurrences of “beast” in the Old Testament as “the living ones” of this place or that, the sea, the air, the waters, the forest or the mountains, life is magnified in the writings of the prophets and in creation. And God is the creator of all things. He is the creator of abundant life. There is the life of the earth, and there is the life of the spirit. The life of the earth ends in death. The life of the spirit is life that does not cease. And all creation is filled with one life or another. Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Yeshua ha Mashiach who has blessed us with all gifts in the heavens, in the Spirit, in the Mashiach who lives forever more.


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Word Study: Alleluia

The word, alleluia, is found four times in the NT, all in the letter called Revelation and all in the 19th chapter.

Rev 19:1 – And after these things (the judgment of the great whore; one-third of the earth will be destroyed) I heard a great voice of much people in heaven, saying, Alleluia; Salvation, and glory, and honor, and power unto Yahavah Elohiym.

Rev 19:3 – And again they said, Alleluia. And her smoke (the judgment of the great whore; one-third of the earth will be destroyed) rose up forever and ever. (to the ages of the ages)

Rev 19:4 – And the twenty-four elders and the four living ones (beasts) fell down and worshipped God that sat on the throne saying, Amen (Faithful), Alleluia.

Rev 19:6 – And I heard as it were the voice of a great multitude, and as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of many thunderings, saying, Alleluia: for Yahavah Elohiym omnipotent reigns.

“Alleluia” is an untranslated word in the KJV. It has been Greek-cized and then Anglicized from two Hebrew words, HaLaL (Strongs 1983) and YaH (Strongs 3049). Thus, in the Hebrew the word would be HaLaLYah. In the Greek the word (Strong 239) would be spelled αλληλουוα. It is found 20 times in the LXX. It is only found in the title of the Psalms in the LXX. The word is not found in the KJV OT. As a sidebar for most (not all of the Psalms there is a one number difference between the number of the Psalms in the KJV versus the LXX. For example, Psalms 104 in the LXX is Psalm 105 in the KJV. Because the word alleluia is only found in the title of Psalms in the LXX, I will list the Psalm it occurs by the number in the LXX (and not in the KJV). Alleluia is found in Ps 104:1; 105:1; 106:1; 110:1; 111:1; 112:1; 113:1; 114:1; 115:1; 116:1; 117:1; 118:1; 134:1; 135:1; 145:1; 146:1; 147:1; 148:1; 149:1; 150:1.

As stated before alleluia is derived from two Hebrew words, HaLal and YaH, joined as HalaYaH. HaLaL (Strongs 1983) is found 165 times in the OT: praise (117); glory (14); boast (10); mad (8); shine (3); foolish (3); commended (2); rage (2); celebrate (1); give (1); marriage (1); renown (1). The essence of the meaning of the word is “to shine”. Thus, God is praised or HaLaL when light is shined upon who He is, His character.

If a person shines the light on him or herself this would be considered boasting. Let God be our judge. In this context the translation of HaLaL would be to boast, mad, foolish or rage, all with a negative sense. The puddle of words HaLaL is found in Strongs are numbers 1972-1989. HaLam (1986, to strike down), HaLMuWTH (1989, hammer) could be related to effect of a bright light shining on a person and striking them down, such as Paul’s conversion and struck down by light (Acts 9:3-4). Other words such as HaLeK (1982, journey, traveler), HaLaK (1983, walk), HaLiYKaH (1979, walking) and HaLA (1972) all relate to a journey. The connection to journey could be bringing one closer to a distant place, shining the light on it.

In conclusion when God is HaLaL or praised, the light of truth is shined upon his character. He is worthy of all praise – all HaLaL. Light can smite, but light can also glorify and magnify. Light illuminates our journey here on the earth, in the days of the flesh. If we walk in the light as He is in the light, we have fellowship with one another and the blood of Yeshua His Son cleanses us from all unrighteousness

I mark this writing by the one true gospel, and the one true gospel is the Mashiach, Yeshua of Nazareth, died for our sins according to the Old Testament, He was buried and He rose again the third day according to the Old Testament. (Luke 24, 1 Cor 15:1-6) The testimony of two or more confirm the fact, and the fact is the one true gospel.

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Word Study: Marketplace

In the NT the Greek word for marketplace is “agora” (Strongs G58, αγορα). It is found 11 total times in the NT: market (6 times); marketplace (4); street (1). A market could be found either in a dedicated square or along a street, thus, the translator’s translating “agora” street in one place. “Agora” is found in the following NT verses: Mat 11:16; 20:3; 23:7; Mark 6:56; 7:4; 12:38; Luke 7:32; 11:43; 20:46; Acts 16:19; 17:17.

There is a verb form of the noun “agora”, “agorazo” (Strongs 59, αγοραζω). It is found 31 total times in the NT: buy (28); redeem (3). Thus, “to market” is “to buy”. “Agorazo” is found in the following verses: Mat 13:34, 46; 14:5; 21:12; 25:9, 10; Mark 6:36, 37; 11:15; 15:46; 16:1; Luke 9:13; 14:18, 19; 17:28; 19:45; 22:36; John 4:8; 6:5; 13:29; 1 Cor 6:20; 7:23, 30; 2 Pet 2:1; Rev 3:18; 5:9; 13:17; 14:3, 4; 18:11.

There is another closely related Greek word to “agora” in the NT. It is “agoraios” (Strongs G60). It is found 2 times in the NT and translated “baser sort” in Act 17:5, and law in Acts 19:38. An “agoraios” is an idler or lounger in a marketplace, people who did not work, and carried with them a poor reputation as thieves and swindlers. Acts 19:38 is a mistranslation of the word. The context of the verse is a craftsman who would sell his craft at the market, and those who would violate the law in the marketplace.

The Greek root word of agora, agorazo and agoraios is “ago” (Strongs 71, ago). It is found 72 total times in the NT translated bring (45 times), lead (12), go (7), bring forth (2) and misc (5).

It would seem to me that the Greek word, “agora” is a Greek-cized Hebrew word. Strongs H95 is the Hebrew word “AGoWRaH”. It is used one time in the OT (1 Sam 2:36) and is translated “a AGoWRaH (gathering) of silver.” There is a similar Hebrew word which is a proper name, AGuWR (Strongs 94). It is only found one time in the OT (Prov 30:1). Solomon is called AGuWR or the collector. Strongs H103 is AGaR meaning “to gather”. It is found in 3 places in the OT: Deut 28:39 (gather the grapes); Prov 6:8 (gather food in the harvest) and Prov 10:5 (gather in the summer). Other words in this puddle of meaning “to gather” are Strong H101/105, basin as “a gathering of water”; Strongs H104, letter (as a gathering of thoughts or words); Strongs 106, clenched hand (as for gathering); Strongs 100, marsh, (as a place where water gathers); Strongs 99, pond (again a place water gathers); Strongs H99, reservoir (same); Strongs 102, band as of troops (a gathering of soldiers or men).

As a sidebar, Latin for field or farm is “ager” as is farmer, “agricola”. The ancient Hebrew word can be seen influencing both the Greek and the later Latin.

There is another Hebrew word for “gather”, Strongs H622, ACeF. It is found 200 total times in the OT: together (51 times); gather (86); assemble (15); rerewards (1); misc (57). The word is first used in Gen 6:21 (gather good); 28:8, 17 (gather to his people as in death); 29:13 (flocks gathered), 7 (gather cattle), 8 (flocks), 22 (gather men); 30:23 (gather reproach performed by God); 30:32 (gather against me); 35:29 (Yacob gathered to people/death); 42:17 (gathered them in prison); 49:1 (gather yourself together), 29 (Yacob gathered to people/death), 33 (2 times: gather his feet in bed & gather unto his people/death). Other Hebrew words with roots of ACeF are: H609, ASA (proper name, 1 Kings 15:8 found 58 total times in OT; H610, ACuWK, found 1 time in the OT, 2 Kings 4:2, as an oil flask or pot in gathering oil. ACoWn (Strongs 611), 5 total times in the OT (Gen 42:2), hurt or mischief as a gathering of hurt. ECuWR (Strongs 612), 4 total times (Judges 15:14), manacles or bonds of prison (gathering of criminals). Strongs H613 same as H612, 2 total times, (Ezra 7:26) imprisonment. ACiYTH (Strongs 614) 2 total times (Ex 23:16), gather or ingathering of crops. ACiYR (Strongs 615), 12 total times, bound, a captive or prisoner, Gen 39:20. H616 same as H615, 3 total times in OT. H617, same as H615 & H616, a proper name pronounced the same. H618, ACaM, to heap together, a storehouse and barn, two total times, Deut 28:8 & Prov 3:10.

The first time the English word gather is used in the OT is Gen 1:9. The Hebrew word is H6960, QaVaH. It is found 49 total times in the OT: wait (30), look (14), gather (1), misc (4). It means bind, hope and look. It should not be translated “gather”

Thus, spiritually “AGoWRah” is a marketplace, a place of gathering food and products,  people and their products, to sell to others. It is a place of labor, and slothfulness is looked up in a negative manner.

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Word Study: Wilderness

When I started this word study on “wilderness” a particular passage came to mind. It is found in Matthew 8 and Luke 9. It is Yeshua’s response to a Scribe who says to him, “Master, I will follow thee wheresoever you go.” Yeshua said to him, “The foxes have holes, and the birds of the air have nests, but the Son of Man  has no where to lay his head.” What Yeshua was saying to the man was, do you really want to follow a person who unlike birds and foxes who naturally have homes throughout the earth, has not only no house, but not even a place to lay his head on the earth.

Wilderness is a significant spiritual word in the writings of the prophets (Old Testament) and the writings of the apostolos (New Testament). The English word is found 35 times in the NT. It is primarily translated from the Greek word, eremos (Strongs G2048). Eremos has a sense of alone, or solitary, and thus wilderness when it refers to the land. Eremos is found 50 total times in the NT: wilderness 32; desert 13; desolate 4; solitary 1. It is found 8 times in Matthew; 9 times in Mark; 12 times in Luke and 5 times in John. It is found 24 times in Matthew-Mark-Luke-John (MMLJ), the first time in Mat 3:1. Yohan the Baptist as a “child grew, and waxed strong in spirit, and in the DESERTS (wilderness) till the day of his shewing to Yisrael. His ministry was in the WILDERNESS. Yeshua was in and out of the WILDERNESS and used the language of the WILDERNESS when he spoke. He was familiar with the WILDERNESS.

The first time eremos is used in the LXX it is found in Gen 12:9. Translated from the Greek as wilderness, but in the Hebrew, the word NeGeb (Strongs H5045) is used, and is translated “the south”. NeGeB is found 112 total times in the OT: south 89; southward 16; south side 5; south country 2. It usually has reference to the land south of Caanan, Palestine, Yisrael or Yerushalem and even to this day is called the Negev (desert). The Negev is over half the land of Yisrael. It is a vast, parched desert with not much water – a wilderness. The southern end of the Dead Sea is contained in the Negev. From the following link:

From the following link:The Negev is defined as a desert due to the small quantities of rain that fall here (less than 200 millimeters annually), and is divided into several regions, starting with the Be’er Sheva-Arad rift in the north, to mountain ridge in the center and the Arava and Eilat in the south. Although the Negev is barren most days of the year, its expanses desolate and its river beds dry, nature here is very surprising. In the winter, despite the small quantities of rain, the Negev is covered with amazing flowers, including luscious red anemones. When there are heavy storms they can cause flash flooding along the riverbeds.

The most common Hebrew word translated wilderness is MiDBaR (Strongs H4057) and the first passage it is found is Gen 14:6. It is found 271 total times in the OT: wilderness 256; desert 13, south 1, miscellaneous 1. MiDBaR has a sense of pasturing which would be animals. Thus, in spiritual language of the OT there are two senses of wilderness, the first is wilderness as parched as in a desert and the other as wilderness as not as parched as a desert, but more fruitful for pasturing, but it remains desolate.

There is Hebrew word, just for desert and not in particularly, the south or NeGeV. It is TZiYoWN (Strongs H6724). It is found in this form only two times in the OT both in First Isaiah, translated “dry place”: Is 25:5; Is 32:2. The root or a derivative of TZiYoWN is TZiYaH (Strongs H6723). It is found 16 total times in the OT translated dry 7 times; dry land; 2; wilderness 2; drought 2; dry places 1; solitary 1; solitary place 1; barren 1. It is first found in Job 24:19: “TZiYaH (drought) and heat consume the snow waters, so doth the grave of those which have sinned.”

As a side note, the Hebrew word, TZiYoWN, consists of the exact same four Hebrew letters and is pronounced the same as the Hebrew word Anglicized “Zion” (H6726). Literally the Hebrew word, TSiYoWN, in which is derived Zion has its meaning as a parched place or desert. Thus Zion is a hill which is literally “mount desert”. I think that Mt Zion which is outside the city Yerushalem today, outside the dung gate, is the hill called Golgatha, or the skull. It was a hill barren of vegetation. There was a barren place on top of this mount purpose by God to crucify the Lord of glory. It was this hill that God chose as his hill, lowly and meek, but chosen of God. He was crucified outside the city at the dung gate. He who knew no sin became sin that we might be the righteousness of God in Him. Thank be unto God for his indescribable gift of grace according to His will alone in the Mashiach.

PS. There is a mountain today called Mount Desert Island, apart of Acadia National Park in Maine, USA. The Wikipedia article can be read. “It is notable for the fact that its summit is among the first points in the United States touched by the rays of the rising sun.”

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